The small Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) has also announced that it will introduce a new cryptocurrency, the Sovereign, as legal tender. The state will be tied to an existing, decentralized peer-to-peer cryptocurrency market. Currently, the U.S. dollar acts as currency and legal tender in the RMI and will continue to do so alongside the new legal tender when the government begins issuing states. In general, legal tender can take two basic forms. A government can simply ratify a market-based commodity money like gold as legal tender and agree to accept the payment of taxes and execute contracts denominated in that commodity. Alternatively, a government may declare a counterfeit commodity or a worthless token as legal tender, which then adopts the characteristics of a fiat currency. Some currencies, such as the US dollar and the euro, are used as legal tender in countries that do not issue their own currency or have found the stable dollar preferable to their own currency. For example, Ecuador adopted the U.S. dollar as its legal tender in 2000 after Ecuador`s currency, sugar, rapidly devalued, making $1 worth $25,000. The adoption of the U.S. dollar as the primary legal tender is colloquially referred to as “dollarization,” although the practice is commonly referred to as currency substitution.
The popularity of cross-border and online shopping is increasing the demand for more forms of money, such as popular cryptocurrency alternatives such as Bitcoin, which are recognized as legal tender. However, given the official objections to such alternatives, except in a few minor cases, they may still be a few years away and are not legal tender in the United States or most other countries. There are many online services that accept cryptocurrencies, and this practice is completely legal. Due to their status as unofficial competitors with legal tender, cryptocurrencies are mainly limited to use in gray and black market activities or as speculative investments. By default and intentionally, legal tender laws prevent the widespread introduction of anything other than existing legal tender into the economy. A cheque or credit scan is not legal tender; It acts as a substitute for money and is only a means by which the checkholder can eventually obtain legal tender for the debt. Cryptocurrencies are generally not accepted as currency, mainly because they are not legal tender. In May 2013, Arizona`s governor vetoed a bill that would have legalized gold and silver coins in the state in addition to the existing U.S. currency.
Add legal tender to one of your lists below or create a new one. However, there are some exceptions. In 2018, in the face of devastating hyperinflation, Venezuelan President Nicolas Madura ordered all federal institutions to accept a new electronic currency, the Petro, as legal tender. The Venezuelan Petro is centrally controlled by the Venezuelan government based on its own assessment of the value of its natural resources. It has been claimed that the Petro is backed by Venezuela`s natural gas, mineral and oil reserves. However, Venezuela`s experience with the Petro has not progressed much, and the Petro, despite its status as legal tender, does not generally circulate in the form of currency. Legal tender serves several purposes. By default, it is used by market participants to perform the functions of money in the economy: an indirect medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, and a deferred payment standard. Proponents of legal tender laws argue that markets generally do not produce the optimal type, quality, and quantity of money, and that legal tender increases the usefulness of money as a means of reducing transaction costs.
In particular, legal tender can allow flexibility in the money supply, and a single currency can eliminate the transaction costs associated with using multiple competing currencies. The introduction of legal tender is a means of achieving a single currency. In the United States, the recognized legal tender consists of Federal Reserve notes and coins. Creditors are required to accept it as an offer of payment to settle a debt; However, unless prohibited by state law, private companies may refuse to accept some or all forms of cash offers unless a transaction has already taken place and the customer has not been at fault. Legal tender also allows monetary policy. From the issuer`s perspective, legal tender allows the issuer to manipulate, devalue and devalue the currency to obtain seigniorage and facilitates the issuance of escrow media by the banking system to meet trading needs. In the absence of legal tender laws, Gresham`s law would make monetary policy, seigniorage, currency manipulation, and fiat media spending much more difficult, as good money in this case tends to drive out bad money. Legal tender is anything that is recognized by law as a means of paying a public or private debt or fulfilling a financial obligation, including tax payments, contracts, and fines or damages. The national currency is legal tender in virtually all countries. A creditor is required by law to accept legal tender to repay a debt.
Legal tender is determined by a law that determines the thing to be used as legal tender and the institution authorized to produce and deliver it to the public, such as the United States Department of the Treasury in the United States and the Royal Canadian Mint in Canada. Usman W. Chohan. « Cryptocurrencies as Asset-Backed Instruments: The Venezuelan Petro », page 2, 5. (consulté le 8 novembre 2020).